Cystocele and Uterine Prolapse

Prolapse of Bladder (Cystocele) & Prolapse of Uterus (Prolapsus)

Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is the condition that the organs located in the lower part of the abdomen (uterus, bladder, rectum, intestines), which we call the pelvic region, descend down from where they are located and prolapse out of the vagina.

If the prolapsed organ is,

  • bladder it is called as “Cystocele”,
  • uterus it is called as “Uterine Prolapsus”
  • rectum it is called as se “Rectocele”
  • intestines it is called as “Enterocele”.


Factors such as advanced age, pregnancy, difficult and multiple vaginal deliveries, chronic constipation, chronic cough, obesity, continuous heavy lifting and genetic predisposition play an important role in bladder and uterine prolapse. Especially with advancing age and with difficult births, the ligaments that hang the pelvic floor weaken and the organs that this hammock structure hangs hang down.


It can cause urinary incontinence, difficulty in urination, palpable mass in the vaginal area, difficulty in defecation and sexual dysfunction.


Treatment options may vary depending on the degree of prolapse, the patient’s discomfort from the situation, systemic additional disease, whether there is a sexual life, and whether there is urinary incontinence.

Getting rid of excess weight, especially for people with a family history of prolapse, cystocele or rectocele; exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles; quitting if he / she smokes; to treat if they have conditions that may cause chronic cough; if any, treatment of chronic constipation are preventive measures.

Mild prolapses usually do not require treatment. However, as prolapse may progress, close follow-up is required. These patients benefit from Kegel exercises that strengthen their pelvic floor muscles. In addition, it is important to avoid chronic cough and constipation and not to lift heavy loads in order not to progress the disease.

Surgical treatment

For the patients who have completed their reproductive age and have severe sagging in the uterus, bladder and rectum, the process of repairing herniated areas in the bladder and rectum is usually performed with the removal of the uterus.

Vaginal Cystocele and/or Rectocele Repair: The facial defect that causes prolapse of the bladder and rectum from the vaginal area is repaired. If the person has a urinary incontinence problem due to stress, incontinence surgeries such as TOT and TVT can also be performed in the same session.

Sacrocolpopexy: It is performed by entering from the abdomen with open, laparoscopic or robotic surgery. The front and back leaves of the vaginal vault are covered with synthetic mesh and the other end of the mesh is hung on the tailbone we call sacrum. It is a technique applied to bring the vagina to its normal position and to pull the prolapsed organs to their normal place.

NOTE: The page content is for informational purposes only, please consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.