Testicular Cancer


The main function of testicles is sperm production and secretion of male hormone (testosterone). Testicular cancer is one of the rare types of cancer that constitutes 1% of all cancers seen in men, but it is the most common type of solid cancer in men aged 18-35.

What are the symptoms?

The most common symptom of testicular cancer is a painless palpable mass in the testicle. However, it should be kept in mind that some of the masses may cause pain. In case of any palpable swelling or mass in the testicle, it is necessary to see a urologist as soon as possible. Men are recommended to self-examine their testicles after a hot shower once a month for early diagnosis of this type of cancer.

Apart from the palpable mass, it can cause complaints such as back pain due to distant organ spread, bone pain, cough, change in consciousness, and sometimes complaints such as growth and pain in the breasts due to hormone release.

What are Risk Factors?

The probability of incidence of testicular cancer increases 4-8 times in patients with undescended testis, even if corrected by surgery. Previous testicular cancer history, presence of testicular cancer in the family, some genetic disorders (kleinefelter syndrome, Down syndrome, etc.) pose a risk for cannabis use and development of white race testicular cancer.

How Is It Diagnosed?

When a palpable mass is detected in the testicle, it is considered malignant until proven otherwise. The first and most commonly used imaging method for diagnosis is scrotal ultrasound. If a mass is detected in the testicle by ultrasound, it is necessary to check the blood levels of some tumor markers (βHCG AFP LDH). These tumor markers are important in staging the disease and following its course. Computed tomography, bone scintigraphy and PET / CT scans may be required in cases with suspected advanced disease.

How is it treated?

When a testicular tumor is diagnosed, surgical intervention should be performed immediately. In this operation, called inguinal orchiectomy, the testicle is removed with an incision in the groin area. Based on the pathology result, advanced treatment and follow-up protocols are determined. Some patients may need treatments such as lymph node removal surgery (RPLND), Radiotherapy or Chemotherapy with a second operation. In determining the treatment protocol, it is important to make a multidisciplinary joint decision by the relevant specialists (Urology, Medical Oncology and Radiation Oncology) in order to determine the most appropriate approach.

NOTE: The content of the page is for informational purposes only, please consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.