Urinary tract infection

Definition: This condition, also called urinary system infections, is the inflammatory response of the urinary system (kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra) against bacterial attack. It is named according to the part it affects in the urinary system:

  • if the bladder is affected it is called as Cystitis,
  • if the kidney is affected it is called as Pyelonephritis,
  • if the urethra is affected it is called as Urethritis.

The most common agents responsible for these infections are E. Coli (70-95%), Staphylococci (5-10%) and other Enterococci (Proteus, Klebsiella etc.) bacteria. In addition, sexually transmitted agents such as gonorrhoea, chlamydia and mycoplasma cause urinary tract infections, especially urethritis.


  • Burning and pain when urinating
  • Odorous urine
  • Frequent urination
  • Dark or red coloured urine
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Pain in the lower abdomen

If there is an infection in the kidney,

  • Fewer
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Flank pain

Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections in women. Throughout their life, one out of every two women suffers from urinary tract infection requiring antibiotic treatment and 1/5 of these infections become chronic.

The reason why urinary infections are observed more frequently in women is that bacteria can reach the bladder more easily due to the shorter urinary canal, which we call the urethra. Since urinary tract infections are not observed very often in men, the underlying cause should be investigated, especially prostate diseases, if they are seen.


In case of suspicion of cystitis, urine analysis is sufficient together with clinical findings. However, advanced tests such as urine culture, ultrasonography or other imaging methods and cystoscopy may be required in necessary cases.


Antibiotic treatment is definitely recommended for the treatment of active infections. So what can we do to reduce the frequency of these infections?

  • Cranberry juice prevents bacteria from clinging to the bladder wall thanks to the proanthocyanidin molecule it contains and strengthens the immune system thanks to its antioxidant properties. Daily consumption of 1 glass reduces the frequency of urinary system infections by up to 50%.
  • Probiotic-containing yoghurt, kefir and some cheeses reduce urine PH level, produce hydrogen peroxide, which is a powerful antibacterial, and significantly reduce the frequency of urinary tract infections by regulating the flora of the genital area.
  • Increasing daily fluid intake,
  • Breaking the habit of waiting for urine,
  • Consuming sufficient amount of vitamin C,
  • Paying attention to genital and sexual hygiene,
  • Cleaning the toilet correctly are also important measures to be taken in this sense

With the simple measures mentioned above, urinary tract infections can be prevented to a great extent, side effects and resistance development that may occur due to antibiotic use can be prevented.

NOTE: The page content is for informational purposes only, please consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.