Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is the 7th most common type of cancer in men worldwide and the 11th most common type of cancer regardless of gender. The disease is more common in men than in women, but it is known that it progresses more aggressively in women. Bladder cancer is generally observed in older ages and its incidence increases with age. However, it should not be forgotten that it can be seen at any age, including childhood.

What is Bladder Cancer?

Bladder cancer is the 7th most common type of cancer in men worldwide, and the 11th most common type of cancer regardless of gender. The disease is more common in men than in women, but it is known to be more aggressive in women. Bladder cancer is generally observed in older ages and its incidence increases with age. However, it should not be forgotten that it can be seen at any age, including childhood.
The disease is detected at an early stage in 75% of the cases. However, it is important to keep this disease under close follow-up even if it is detected early so that this disease, which has a risk of recurrence after treatment, does not step up.

What Are Bladder Cancer Risk Factors?

The most important risk factor in the development of bladder cancer is the use of cigarettes and other tobacco products. It is known that 55-60% of cancers in men and 20-30% in women are caused by directly smoking.
Occupational exposure to chemical agents (especially paint, leather, textile and petroleum products), chronic irritation (stone, infection, catheter, etc.), some parasites (such as schistosoma) and radiation therapy exposure are other risk factors.

Bladder Tumor Symptoms

The most common symptom of bladder tumor is painless bleeding in the urine. Along with bleeding, clots may come from the urine. Sometimes the bleeding in the urine is invisible to the eye and can only be detected in urinalysis. Other than bleeding in the urine, complaints such as burning and pain during urination, difficulty urinating, frequent urination are other symptoms of this disease that can be seen in the early period. If the disease has progressed and the organ metastasis, it may cause symptoms such as weight loss, loss of urination and defecation control, bone pain, cough, and confusion.

 

What are the Diagnostic Methods?
  • Cystoscopy: It is the process of visualizing the inside of the bladder by entering from the urethra with the help of an optical device. This procedure can be applied at local anesthesia, especially when it is performed with flexible devices.
  • Biopsy: In suspicious cases, pathological examination can be performed by taking a biopsy from inside the bladder during cystoscopy. Biopsy can sometimes be performed as “TUR (transurethral resection)” for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
  • Urine Cytology: It is the process of examining the urine sample under a microscope in terms of the presence of cancer cells.
  • Display Methods: Radiological imaging methods (CT, MRI, PET / CT, etc.) are needed for staging purposes both at the initial diagnosis stage and after the diagnosis of bladder cancer.
What Are The Treatment Methods?

Bladder cancer treatment plans should be decided by considering the type, pathological stage and degree of the tumor, and the age and current health status of the patient.

TUR surgery, in which tumor tissue is removed with closed method, is often sufficient in the early phase when the tumorous tissue is located only in the bladder epithelium and the muscle layer are not involvement. In addition, BCG or chemotherapy drugs, which causing damage to tumor tissue by increasing the body’s immune response, can be administered into the bladder. These drugs reduce the risk of recurrence of the tumor. Nevertheless, patients should be observed periodically by cystoscopy and imaging methods against the possibility of recurrence of the tumor.

Treatment Methods

The gold standard approach in the treatment of tumors affecting the muscle layer of the bladder (Stage 2) is the “Radical Cystectomy” surgery in which the entire bladder is removed. After the bladder is removed during radical cystectomy surgery, the new artificial bladder or urinary tract can be attached to the abdomen (ileal conduit) by using the small piece of intestines of the patient with different methods. Although Radical Cystectomy surgery can be classically performed with the open method, it can also be performed by developing laparoscopic or robotic surgery.
Systemic Chemotherapy is applied first ın cases where the outer layer of the bladder (serosa) is affected by the tumor (Stage 3) or in case which the spread of cancer in other organs is detected (Stage 4). Radiotherapy or Surgery (Radical Cystectomy) options can be applied depending on taken response.

What is a bladder tumor? How Is Bladder Cancer Treated? What are Bladder Cancer Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Methods?

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